Chicago Society for Space Studies Statement Of Philosophy
- Chicago Society for Space Studies Vision -- What is the Ultimate Goal of Chicago Society for Space Studies ?
"People living and working
in thriving communities beyond the Earth."
- Chicago Society for Space Studies Mission -- What is the Purpose
of Chicago Society for Space Studies ?
"To promote social, economic, technological, and political change,
to advance the day when humans will live and work in space."
- Chicago Society for Space Studies Rationale
- Why Our Mission Is Important
- Survival -- Of Human Species
and Earth’s Biosphere
It is the nature of every form of life, whether animal or plant,
to strive to survive.
- Survival of the Human Species
To ensure the survival of the human species, which is encountering increased
natural, man-made, and extraterrestrial threats, including disease, resource depletion,
pollution, urban violence, terrorism, nuclear war, asteroids, and comets.
- Survival of Earth’s Biosphere
To ensure the survival of
other animal and plant life on Earth, much of which is suffering increased loss of population
and quality habitat due to the growing presence of humans on planet
Earth, via expansion, pollution, deforestation, fishing, farming, mining, and promotion
of certain species of animals and plants.
Space technology provides
both means to monitor threats to life on Earth and ways to help curtail them. Space
industrialization and settlement provides safety valves to relieve the pressures
that cause Earth-bound threats and provides escape routes in case of
catastrophic man-made or extraterrestrial threats. Humanity has inherited the stewardship
of the planet Earth, and will need the vast resources of outer space to reverse the
damage it has caused to the Earth’s biosphere, and to ultimately enhance
all life on Earth.
- Growth -- Unlimited Room
It is the nature of every form of life, whether animal or plant, to
grow and multiply.
- New Habitats for Life
To provide the human species, as well as all other animal and plant life
on Earth, with room to grow and multiply. Earth has a finite supply of land, air, and
water, for which humans, animals, and plants must compete. On Earth, only humanity has
or can acquire and utilize the knowledge to create new habitats on other worlds
or in space from raw materials from moons and asteroids.
Frontiers for Humanity
To provide the human species with a new "frontier" for
exploration and adventure, and to thought and expression, culture and
art, and modes of government. The opening of "the New World" to western civilization
brought about an unprecedented 500-year period of growth and experimentation in science,
technology, literature, music, art, recreation, and government (including
the development and gradual acceptance of democracy). The presence of a frontier
led to the development of the "open society" founded on the principles of individual
rights and freedoms. Many of these rights and freedoms are being placed under increasingly
stringent limitations as human population grows and humanity moves
towards a "closed society", where eventually everyone eats the same, speaks the same,
and dresses the same. "Cultures that do not explore, die!"
- Prosperity -- Unlimited Resources
It is the nature of
the human species to strive to improve the quality of its many lives and to provide a better
future for its children.
- Improved Standards of Living
To provide humanity with the resources it needs to improve the quality of
life for all humans on the planet Earth. The majority of humanity lives at an economic
level that is far below that of the Western democracies. Outer space holds virtually limitless
amounts of energy and raw materials, which can be harvested for use both
on Earth and in space. Quality of life can be improved directly by utilization of these
resources and also indirectly by moving hazardous and polluting industries and/or their
waste products off planet Earth.
- Economic Opportunity
To provide every human individual with the opportunity to improve the
well being of himself or herself, and his or her family. Vast new resources must be developed
if all persons are to be given economic opportunities for themselves and their children
even marginally equal to what many would consider a minimally tolerable
standard of living.
- Technological Development
To provide remote locations for the development, testing, and "perfection"
of promising, but potentially hazardous technologies, such as biological
experimentation; nuclear, fusion, chemical and antimatter power generation; and space
propulsion. Such developmental facilities could be placed either in space or on other
worlds far from both space settlements and unrelated facilities.
- Curiosity -- The Quest for Knowledge
It is the nature of
the human species to learn more about its origins, its past, its fellow life forms, its
environment, its limitations, and its possibilities for the future. Earth is but a tiny
container of knowledge compared to the entire incredibly vast universe.
"We are part of the universe, through our eyes, ears and minds, the universe may know
- Chicago Society for Space Studies Principles -- What Does Chicago Society for Space Studies Stand For?
These are the guiding principles of the National Space Society by which we will
conduct our Mission in pursuit of our Vision. (In priority order).
- Human Rights
Chicago Society for Space Studies shall promote the principle of fundamental rights of every
Chicago Society for Space Studies shall observe, practice,
and promote ethical conduct.
Chicago Society for Space Studies shall actively pursue
and promote human settlement beyond Earth. Scientific inquiry and exploration are important
precursors to settlement.
bounds of these Principles, Chicago Society for Space Studies shall promote and support any and all methods and practices
that support achievement of our Vision.
support of its Vision, Chicago Society for Space Studies stands for the active pursuit and promotion of human settlement
beyond the Earth, with scientific inquiry and exploration as important precursors. Chicago Society for Space Studies advocates
any and all methodologies that support achievement of our Vision in an ethical manner consistent
with the preservation of fundamental human rights."
- Chicago Society for Space Studies
Beliefs -- What Does Chicago Society for Space Studies Support?
While we cannot say that the following are absolutely
essential for space settlement we believe and support the following:
- Individual Rights
Chicago Society for Space Studies believes that space development and settlement
will occur most efficiently, and humanity's prosperity will be best ensured, if
every human being is given the freedom of thought and action.
- Unrestricted Access to Space
Chicago Society for Space Studies believes that space development and settlement
will occur most efficiently, and humanity's survival and growth will be best ensured,
if every human being is allowed the opportunity to travel, live, and/or
work in outer space.
- Personal Property Rights
Chicago Society for Space Studies
believes that space development and settlement will occur most efficiently, and humanity's
survival and growth will be best ensured, if every human being is allowed the opportunity
to own property in space and/or on other world.
Chicago Society for Space Studies believes that space development and settlement will occur most
efficiently, and humanity's prosperity will be best ensured, if the "free
market" drivers of competition and profit used.
Funding of High Risk R&D
Chicago Society for Space Studies believes that space development and settlement will
occur most efficiently, and humanity's prosperity will be best ensured, if
national governments fund the research and development of space technologies deemed
too "high risk" by their industries.
- International Cooperation
Chicago Society for Space Studies believes that space development and settlement will occur most efficiently,
and humanity's survival and prosperity will be best ensured, if nations cooperate on space
research and development, and leave competition to individual companies.
- Democratic Values
Chicago Society for Space Studies believes that humanity's growth and prosperity
will be best ensured if the fundamentals of democracy are applied to and
incorporated by space settlements.
- Enhancement of Earth’s Ecology
Chicago Society for Space Studies believes that one of the goals and benefits of space development
and settlement is to restore and enhance the biosphere of the planet Earth.
- Protection of New Environments
Chicago Society for Space Studies believes that space
development and settlement should be pursued in a manner that safeguards alien life forms,
natural wonders, and historical monuments.
- Barriers to Space Settlement
These are the major targets for change (obstacles
to be overcome) that the National Space Society believes must be accomplished to realize our
Vision, and, therefore, constitute our Mission.
- Lack of Public Interest
public is rapidly losing interest in space development: (1) because the pace of space development
is frustratingly slow, especially when compared to incredibly fast pace of the home computer
revolution; (2) because NASA is forced by taxpayer watchdogs to portray human
space activities in the most boring manner; (3) because the real and exaggerated perceived
risks of outer space frightens them; and (4) because little activity, planning, and public
discussion occurs regarding private trips into space.
- Proposed Passenger
Government agencies currently considering establishing limits
on who can and cannot go to into outer space, could adversely affect future space
tourism markets, if such limits are much more detailed than the general guidelines
provided to the airline industry.
- Perceived Risk of Space Activities
In addition to the real measurable risks associated with launch vehicle
reliability, both the private and public sector have been led to believe that outer
space itself is inherently dangerous, because of (1) the "effects of weightlessness," an
artificial risk created by government space agencies' preoccupation with micro-gravity,
an environment not conducive to human life; and (2) space radiation, a true
hazard whose risk has been temporarily heightened by the short-term need to make spacecraft
walls thin to reduce launch weight.
- No Long Term Government Funding Mechanism
in the United States, industry is prevented from obtaining investors for future
private space transportation systems because the near-term customer, U.S. government agencies,
are not allowed to make orders for space launches as airlines can for commercial aircraft.
While some progress has been made with DoD’s handling of the EELV program,
NASA thus far has not been allowed (or encouraged) to follow such a practice for future
reusable launch vehicles.
- Lack of Incentives for Private Capital Investment
In addition to the long-term government-funding obstacle, there are
few financial incentives for private investors to provide the huge sums of money
required to fund the capital costs of space transportation systems and facilities. If the
world governments want private industry to take over funding of space development, some
form of short-term transition incentive program must be created to attract private
- Liability Insurance Costs and Conditions
insurance premiums are one of the largest cost components of an individual
launch vehicle mission, averaging about ten percent of the total cost. Since the reason
for this is primarily due to poor launch vehicle reliability, improving reliability should
decrease insurance premiums; however, the need for such large liability coverage
needs to be questioned. Most, if not all, launch accidents happen in restricted zones
and yield little if any collateral damage; yet government requirements for liability insurance
are based are worst-case scenarios that have not happened in the entire history of rocketry.
The liability conditions specified in the Outer Space Treaty also cause problems
for private launch companies launching rockets made by companies from other nations.
of Affordable Space Transportation to Space
Despite the dreams, plans,
and claims of the past 30 years, launch vehicle developers have not found a way out of the
launch vehicle "Catch 22" trap: (1) individual launch costs can only be greatly reduced
by spreading the huge cost of launch vehicle development over a large number
of flights; (2) the market to demand a large number of flights can only exist once individual
launch costs are greatly reduced.
- No Closed-loop Life Support System
Having to launch everything necessary for life support for any extended
period of time, long duration space travel (such as missions to Mars), and space
settlements will be cost prohibitive. Budget cuts to the International Space Station program
have severely delayed if not canceled research and experimentation of components of closed-loop
life support systems that are necessary to reduce the dependency of space
settlements on support launched from Earth. Being able to reuse human wastes will also avoid
space and planetary environmental pollution issues.
- Launch Vehicle
Expendable launch vehicle reliability is averaging about 0.90
(one catastrophic failure every 10 flights); reusable launch vehicle reliability will
need to average about 0.99 (one catastrophic failure every 100 flights). Space
tourism, the greatest potential market for large numbers of launch vehicle flights, cannot
exist until reliability is increased by at least a factor of 100 over today's average.
- U.S. National
Space Policy Limitations
The U.S. National Space Policy set in 1996 effectively
forbids the U.S. government not only from funding any human mission beyond Earth
orbit, but also from funding any research and development that might lead to future
human missions beyond Earth orbit.
- Government Obstacles to Commercialization
Commercial space activities offer the best near-term solution to provide a
market for affordable launch vehicles, yet there exists both real and perceived
obstacles from many governments. In the United States NASA is repeatedly accused of not
understanding the needs of private industry and therefore not correctly implementing space
commercialization laws passed by Congress. The FAA and Department of Commerce have
only recently begun revising and creating regulations to encourage and not hinder
commercial space activities.
- Lack of Sovereignty
the Outer Space Treaty of 1967 and the Moon Treaty of 1979 forbid nations
from claiming any part of the Moon or other celestial body. Article 11; Paragraph 2 states
"The moon is not subject to national appropriation by any claim of sovereignty, by means
of use or occupation, or by any other means." This has left a void of
any legal system that would enable private entrepreneurs and companies to plan and execute
commercial space activities on the Moon and other celestial bodies.
- Moon Treaty and "Common Heritage" Principles
The Moon Treaty, passed
by the United Nations in 1979, yet ratified by only four nations (none of which were space
faring at the time) strictly forbids the private ownership of any part of the Moon
or other celestial body. Article 11; Paragraph 1 states "The moon and its
natural resources are the common heritage of mankind." Article 11, Paragraph 3 states
"Neither the surface nor the subsurface of the moon, nor any part thereof or natural resources
in place, shall become property of any State, international intergovernmental
or non-governmental organization, national organization or non-governmental entity
or of any natural person." Despite the lack of ratification, no space-faring nation has
ever publicly challenged this treaty.